1. The Structure of the Gospel of Mark

1.1. The Best Way to Structure the Gospel of Mark

1.1.1. General Comments

The best way to structure the Gospel of Mark is to designate Mark 10:1 as the major transition in the gospel: When Jesus sets out from Galilee (Capernaum) (9:33) to Judea. From what is said previously (8:31; 9:31) and is reiterated subsequently (10:32-34), Jesus leaves Galilee for Judea in order to allow himself to be arrested and executed by the Jewish authorities. Before the transition in 10:1, Jesus moves about in Galilee with some excursions into the surrounding regions. After the transition he is either on his way to or in Jerusalem.

    The section before the major transition may be divided into three sub-sections. Relevant events prior to the beginning of Jesus' proclamation of the Kingdom of God are provided in Preparation for Jesus' ministry (1:1-13). Following this is the First Phase of Jesus' Ministry in Galilee (1:14-5:43). This section ends with Jesus' returning to his hometown, Nazareth. Then comes the Second Phase of Jesus' Public Ministry in Galilee (6:6b-9:50). Generally, however, the material in Mark 1:14-9:50 flows together, so that its divisions tend to appear arbitrary, with the exception of 1:1-13. This is contrary to D. Carson, D. Moo and L. Morris, who hold that Mark's "narrative is punctuated by six transitional paragraphs or statements, which divide Mark's account into seven basic sections" (An Introduction to the New Testament [Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992] 89). (These six transitional paragraphs or statements are alleged to be 1:14-15; 3:7-12; 6:1-6; 8:27-30; 11:1-11; 14:1-2.) These supposed transitional paragraphs are not obvious enough to be considered part of the literary structure of the Gospel of Mark.

    The section after the major transition consists of two sub-sections: The Judean Period of Jesus' Ministry (10:1-13:37) and Passion and Resurrection narratives (14:1-16:20).

1.1.2. Outline of the Gospel of Mark

A. 1:1-13 Preparation for Jesus' ministry

1. 1:1-8

 John the Baptist is introduced and said to be the fulfillment of Mal 3:1 and Isa 40:3. John preaches a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins, and predicts that after him would come one greater.

 2. 1:9-11

 John baptizes Jesus. Afterwards, the Spirit come upon Jesus like a dove and a voice announces, "This is my son in whom I am pleased."

 3. 1:12-13

Satan tempts Jesus in the wilderness.

 B. 1:14-5:43 The First Phase of Jesus' Ministry in Galilee

After his baptism, Jesus begins to preach that the Kingdom of God has drawn near and that people should repent and believe his message. With his disciples, he travels around Galilee for the most part, preaching, healing, exorcising and performing miracles. He encounters some opposition. This section ends with Jesus' returning to his hometown, Nazareth, where he is rejected.

 1. 1:14-15

Jesus' begins his ministry, proclaiming that the Kingdom of God has drawn near and that people should repent and believe the good news.

 2. 1:16-20

 Jesus calling of four fishermen to be disciples, Simon, Andrew, James and John.

 3. 1:21-28

 In Capernaum, Jesus exorcises a man with an unclean spirit on the Sabbath in the synagogue.

4. 1:29-34

From the synagogue, Jesus goes to the house of Peter's mother-in-law, whom he heals. That evening many sick and demon-possessed come to the house to be healed and exorcised.

5. 1:35-39

Jesus travels around Galilee, preaching, healing and exorcising.

6. 1:40-45

 Jesus heals a man with leprosy.

7. 2:1-12

In Capernaum, a paralyzed man is let down from an opening in the roof by four men in order that he be healed. Jesus says that his sins are forgiven, which offends scribes, because they claim that only God has that right. To prove that the son of man has the authority to forgive sins, Jesus heals the man.

8. 2:13-17

Beside the Sea of Galilee, Jesus calls Levi, the tax collector to be a disciple. While dining with Levi and other tax collectors and sinners, Jesus is criticized for associating with such people. He defends himself by saying that he has come to call sinners not the righteous.

9. 2:18-22

Jesus is criticized for not requiring his disciples to fast, as the disciples of John the Baptist do. Jesus responds by saying that only when the bridegroom is taken away will they fast. Following this are two sayings: no one sews a patch made of new cloth on an old garment; no one puts new wine in old wineskins.

10. 2:23-28

Jesus defends his disciples against the accusation that they broke the Sabbath by plucking grain. He uses the example of David's eating consecrated bread to prove that their actions were warranted. He concludes by saying that the Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath.

11. 3:1-6

In a synagogue, Jesus heals a man with a withered hand on the Sabbath. The Pharisees take offense and plot to kill Jesus.

12. 3:7-12

Jesus heals and exorcises many near the Sea of Galilee.

13. 3:13-19

Jesus calls his twelve disciples to be with him, to send out to preach the good news and have authority over demons.

14. 3:20-30

Jesus responds to the accusation that he casts out demons by the power of Beelzebub by saying that Satan cannot drive out Satan, because this would mean that his kingdom would be divided. Following this are the sayings about the binding and plundering of the strong man and the unforgivable sin against the Holy Spirit.

15. 3:31-34

Jesus says that his true mother and brothers are those who do the will of God.

16. 4:1-34

In this section are found several of Jesus' parables, along with an explanation of why Jesus teaches in parable.

a. 4:1-9

Parable of the sower: A man sows seed in his field. Some of the deed falls on the path and is eaten by birds; some of the seed falls on rocky soil, grows up but withers under the hot sun, not having deep roots. Some of the seed falls on soil covered with thorns, grows up, but is choked out by the thorns. The rest of the seed falls on good soil, grows up, and produces fruit of varying quantities.

b. 4:10-12

Jesus says that his purpose in speaking in parables is to conceal his message for those on the outside; he cites Isa 6:9-10 as explanatory of his aim in using parables. Only to those on the inside is the mystery of the Kingdom of God given.

c. 4:13-20

At the request of his disciples, Jesus explains the parable of the sower. The seed is the word, which is received by four types of hearers, represented by the four types of soil. The path represents those who hear and immediately Satan takes the word that was sown in them. The rocky soil represents those who hear the word, receive it with joy, but later fall away under persecution, since the word does not have root in them. The soil covered with thorns represents those who hear, receive the word initially, but who have it choked out of them by worries, the deceitfulness of wealth and other desires. The good soil represents those who hear the word, receive it, and produce fruit of varying quantities.

d. 4:21-25

Several parabolic sayings are grouped together. Jesus warns against putting a lamp under a bowl or a bed. He says that whatever is hidden will be revealed, and then warns that with whatever measure one uses, it will be measured to you. Following this, Jesus says that whoever has more will be given and whoever lacks what little he has will be taken away.

e. 4:26-29

Jesus compares the Kingdom of God to a seed that when sown grows up by itself without the help of anyone. When it is mature, the harvest then comes.

f. 4:30-32

Jesus compares the Kingdom of God to a mustard seed, which, although the smallest seed, grows to become the largest of all garden herbs.

g. 4:33-34

It is said that Jesus spoke other parables and that he used only parables, explaining them to his disciples in private.

17. 4:35-41

That day, when evening comes, Jesus and his disciples set out across the Sea of Galilee. Asleep in the stern, Jesus is awakened by his fearful disciples when a storm comes up. Jesus calms the storm and rebukes them for their unbelief. The disciples marvel that even the wind and the waves obey him.

18. 5:1-20

Jesus exorcises a demon-possessed man in the region of the Gerasenes (Gadarenes or Gergesenes). The man was possessed by numerous demons, who called themselves "legion," and he dwelt among tombs. Jesus sends the demons into a herd of pigs, which rush headlong over a cliff. Becoming fearful of Jesus, the local people request that Jesus leave their district.

19. 5:21-43

Crossing the Sea of Galilee, Jesus' heals a woman with the bleeding problem, who touches the hem of Jesus' garment believing that she will be healed. He also the raising Jairus' daughter from the dead.

21. 6:1-6a

Going to Nazareth, his hometown, Jesus is rejected. He remarks that a prophet has no honor in his hometown, and he cannot perform many works of power because of the unbelief of the Nazarenes.

C. 6:6b-9:50 The Second Phase of Jesus' Public Ministry in Galilee

After he is rejected at Nazareth, Jesus then sets out again to preach, heal and exorcise mostly in the region of Galilee, but with some notable exceptions. He sends out his disciples in pairs to do the same, giving them authority over unclean spirits. Jesus performs more miracles, and comes into conflict with the Pharisees. Also the death of John the Baptist is described. On two different occasions Jesus explains to his disciples that he must be rejected and executed.

1. 6:6b-13

Jesus' sends out of his disciples two by two, giving them authority over evil spirits. They preached that people should repent, exorcise and healed many by anointing them with oil.

2. 6:14-29

King Herod thinks that Jesus is John the Baptist raised from the dead. Herod unwillingly killed John at the request of the daughter of Herodias, his wife.

3. 6:30-44

With five loaves and two fish, Jesus feeds five thousand men along with women and children. Two baskets of leftovers were collected afterwards.

4. 6:45-52

Jesus sends his disciples ahead by boat to Bethsaida. The disciples have difficulty making headway because of the wind. That night Jesus walks out on the water to them, who are terrified until they realize that it is Jesus. When he climbs into the boat, the winds subside.

5. 6:53-56

When they have crossed over to Gennesaret, Jesus heals the sick there.

6. 7:1-23

Jesus criticizes the Pharisaic traditions of the fathers, and calls the Pharisees hypocrites, citing Isa 29:13 as descriptive of them. He accuses the Pharisees of using their traditions to avoid obeying the Law, giving the example of the Korban tradition. Jesus explains that what matters is not so much the ritual purity of food, but more the state of the heart, from which comes forth all sorts of uncleanness.

7. 7:24-30

Going to the region of Tyre, Jesus exorcises the daughter of the Syro-Phoenician woman, although at first he is reluctant because she is not a Jew.

8. 7:31-37

In the region of the Decapolis, Jesus heals a deaf and dumb man.

9. 8:1-10

Jesus feeds four thousand men along with women and children with seven loaves of bread.

10. 8:11-13

The Pharisees demand an authenticating sign from Jesus, who refuses.

11. 8:14-21

Jesus warns his disciples about the leaven of the Pharisees and that of Herod, which the disciples wrongly interpret to be a criticism of them for not bringing enough bread along.

12. 8:22-25

Jesus heals a blind man at Bethsaida.

13. 8:27-30

In the villages around Caesarea Philippi, Jesus asks the disciple who they think he is. Peter confesses that Jesus is the Christ, but Jesus warns him not to tell anyone.

14. 8:31-33

Jesus begins to teach his disciples that he must be rejected and killed, but will after three days be raised up. Peter objects to what Jesus says, but Jesus rebukes him as the mouthpiece of Satan.

15. 8:34-9:1

In this section is found a series of saying relating to discipleship. Jesus teaches that becoming his disciple requires taking up one's cross and that whoever loses his life for him and the good news will save it. Following this is the saying that it profits nothing to gain the whole world but lose one's soul. Then there is attached the saying that when he comes in glory, Jesus, the son of man, will be ashamed of anyone who has been ashamed of him and his words. Jesus next says that some among his hearers will not die until they see the Kingdom of God come with power.

16. 9:2-13

Jesus is transfigured in the presence of Peter, James and John. On the mountain, Moses and Elijah appeared to him. As they are descending, Jesus is asked why the scribes teach that Elijah must come first and restore all things. He responds that Elijah has already come, and that they did to him whatever they pleased

17. 9:14-29

Jesus exorcises a boy with an unclean spirit, whom his disciples could not. Jesus tells his disciples that this type of unclean spirit only comes out with prayer.

18. 9:30-32

Passing through Galilee, for a second time, Jesus predicts that he must be betrayed, killed and raised from the dead after three days.

19. 9:33-37

In Capernaum, after the disciples argued over which of them would be the greatest, Jesus teaches that the true nature of greatness lies in service to others. Taking a child, he says that whoever welcomes such a one in his name welcomes him and the one who sent him.

20. 9:38-41

The disciples attempt to forbid a man unconnected with their circles from exorcising in Jesus' name. Jesus, however, allows it.

21. 9:42-50

In this section there are grouped together several sayings, connected by link words. In the first saying, Jesus teaches that it is perilous to cause a disciple to stumble; connected with this are a three related sayings stressing by means of hyperbole the need to remove all obstacles to entering life or the Kingdom of God. Then follows a saying about being salted with fire and another relating to the need to remain salty.

    It is worth noting that J. Moffat divides 1:14-9:50 differently [Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament (New York: Scribners, 1911) 218-20]. In his analysis, 1:14-7:23 has Jesus working in eastern Galilee, using Capernaum as his home base, whereas in 7:24-9:50 places Jesus in northern Galilee, from where he returns to Capernaum in order to travel to Jerusalem for Passover. This is another way of sub-dividing the Galilean period of Jesus' ministry in Mark's gospel. As said already, to see Jesus' return to Nazareth as the dividing point of Jesus' Galilean ministry is somewhat arbitrary, so that Moffat's structure would be just as acceptable.

D. 10:1-13:37 The Judean Period of Jesus' Ministry

In this section Jesus goes to Judea, visiting Jerusalem more than once. Some of what Jesus says and does during this time is provided. Some of what Jesus says in this section relates to the consequences for Jerusalem and the Jewish people of the rejection of the Kingdom of God and its herald.

1. 10:1-12

At the instigation of the Pharisees, Jesus teaches that it was never God's will that a man divorce his wife, contrary to what is said in the Torah. A man or woman who divorces his spouse and marries another commits adultery.

2. 10:13-16

Jesus blesses some children, after his disciples attempt to deny them access to Jesus. He says that one must enter the Kingdom of God as a child.

3. 10:17-22

A rich, young ruler asks Jesus about how to inherit eternal life. Jesus answers that it is through obeying the commandments. His interlocutor responds that he has kept the commandments, to which Jesus says that there is one more condition that he must meet: he is to sell all his possessions and follow him.

4. 10:23-31

Jesus explains that it is difficult for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of God. His disciples are surprised at this saying and wonder who then can be saved. Jesus responds by saying that what is impossible for man is possible for God. Then Peter says that he and the others have left everything for Jesus, and Jesus promises that anyone who has made sacrifices for him and the good new in this age will be rewarded in this age and receive eternal life in the age to come. But there will be a reversal in the age to come.

5. 10:32-34

On the way to Jerusalem, Jesus predicts for a third time that he will be killed and raised up after three days.

6. 10:35-45

James and John ask Jesus to grant to her sons the honor of sitting at his right and left hands when he comes into his kingdom. Jesus asks whether they are able to participate in the fate that awaits him, and says such honors are not his to give. When the other ten disciples hear what happen, they become indignant. Jesus then teaches them that greatness consists in service, just as the son of man came to serve and give his life as a ransom for many.

7. 10:46-52

In Jericho, Jesus heals blind Bartimaeus, who calls Jesus "son of David."

8. 11:1-11

Jesus enters into Jerusalem riding on a donkey, and is received by the crowds reciting Ps 118:25-26.

9. 11:12-14

On the next day, Jesus' curses a fig tree because it has no figs, even though it is not the time for figs.

10. 11:15-19

Jesus clears the Temple of money changers and livestock dealers, saying that they have turned the Temple, which should be a house of prayer (Isa 56:7) into a den of thieves.

11. 11:20-26

The next day, the disciples are amazed to see that the fig tree that Jesus cursed has withered. Jesus takes this opportunity to encourage them to have faith in God. Following this are three more sayings about faith and prayer: Jesus says that by faith one can do what seems impossible, such as saying to a mountain to be removed to the sea; he then tells them to believe that thay have already received what they request in prayer and it will be given to them; finally, he tells them to forgive others before praying, in order that God may forgive them.

12. 11:27-33

The chief priest, scribes and elder question Jesus about his authority to do clear the Temple of money-changers and livestock dealers. He asks them by whose authority John the Baptist baptized. Jesus' opponents are silenced, because they are afraid to deny in public that John's authority came from heaven.

13. 12:1-12

Jesus tells the parable of vineyard and the tenants. A man leased his vineyard to tenant farmers who would not give him a portion of the harvest. Instead they killed all the agents he sent to them, including the owner's son. Jesus says that the only recourse open to the owner is to destroy the tenants and give the vineyard to others. Jesus then quotes Ps 118:22-23, which speaks of the rejected cornerstone.

14. 12:13-17

Some Pharisees and Herodians, hoping to trap him, ask Jesus whether it allowed paying taxes to Caesar. Jesus evades the question by saying that they should give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar and to God what belongs to God.

15. Mark 12:18-27

The Sadducees challenge Jesus' belief in the resurrection by offering him the hypothetically situation of a women who has been widowed seven times. They want to know which of her seven husbands will be the woman's legitimate husband after the resurrection. Jesus says that the Sadducees do not understand the scriptures nor the power of God. He adds that, at the resurrection, there will no longer be any marriage.

16. Mark 12:28-34

A scribe asks Jesus which is the greatest commandment. Jesus says that there are two greatest commandments: to love God with one's whole being (Deut 6:4-5) and to love one's neighbor as oneself (Lev 19:18), to which the scribe assented and added that these are more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. Jesus says that the scribe is not far from the Kingdom of God.

17. Mark 12:35-37

Jesus asks how the Messiah can be David's son when in Ps 110:1 Yahweh says to David's lord, the Messiah, to sit at his right hand.

18. Mark 12:38-40

Jesus warns against the scribes who love to be honored and who exploit widows.

19. Mark 12:41-44

In the Temple, Jesus commends a woman for giving all that she had as a gift to the Temple.

20. Mark 13:1-37

In this section, Jesus describes the coming destruction of the Temple and the coming of the son of man.

a. Mark 13:1-2

Jesus foretells the complete destruction of the Temple.

b. Mark 13:3-8

Later, on the Mount of Olives, Jesus is asked what the signs will be when all these things are about to occur. Jesus says that there will come those who will come in his name, claiming, "I am he," but the disciples should not be deceived. There will be wars and rumors of wars, earthquakes and famines.

c. Mark 13:9-13

Jesus warns his disciples that they will be hated and persecuted, but also reassures them that the Holy Spirit will give the words to say for their defense at their trial. The good news must first be proclaimed to the gentiles.

d. Mark 13:14-20

Jesus warns that when the abomination that causing desolation is set up where it ought not to be that those in Judea should flee. This will be a time of unparalleled suffering.

e. Mark 13:21-23

Jesus warns against being deceived by false Messiahs and prophets.

f. Mark 13:24-27

In those days, after that suffering, Jesus says that they will see the son of man coming in clouds; he will gather the elect from the four corners of the earth.

g. Mark 13:28-31

Jesus says when they see these things occurring that they should expect the coming of the son of man and that this generation will not pass away until all these things have taken place.

h. Mark 13:32-37

Jesus exhorts them to be watchful because the time of the coming of the son of man is unknown.

E. 14:1-16:20 Passion and Resurrection Narratives

This section contains the plot to kill Jesus, Jesus' last Passover meal with his disciples, his arrest, his trial, crucifixion, burial and resurrection.

1. 14:1-2

The chief priest and scribes plot to kill Jesus.

2. 14:3-9

While dining, Jesus is anointed by a woman at Bethany. When some criticize her, he says that she has anointed his body for burial.

3. 14:10-11

Judas agrees to betray Jesus for money, and begins to look for an opportunity to do so.

4. 14:12-26

Jesus celebrates his last Passover with his disciples. He sends two disciples to make Passover preparations. During the meal, Jesus says that the bread is his body and the cup is the blood of the covenant poured out for many. He adds that he will not drink of the fruit of the vine until he drinks it anew in the Kingdom of God.

5. 14:27-31

Jesus predicts that his disciples will desert him, in fulfillment of Zech 13:7. When Peter objects, he says that Peter will deny him three times.

6. 14:32-42

Jesus prays in Gethsemane, asking God to remove this cup (i.e., destiny) from him. His disciples, however, cannot remain awake during his prayer ordeal. Then Jesus says that the hour has come for the son of man to be betrayed into the hands of sinners.

7. 14:43-50

Jesus is arrested. Judas kisses him as a sign that he is the one to be arrested. In Jesus' defense, one of his disciples cuts the ear off of one the servants of the high priests. Jesus remarks that it is unnecessary to arrest him with such a show of force, since he was regularly in the Temple teaching; but this is to fulfil scripture.

8. 14:51-52

A young man follows, but, when his linen garment is taken hold of, he is forced to flee with naked.

9. 14:53-65

Jesus is taken to the high priest, and all the chief priests, elders and scribes are assembled. Witnesses who do not agree are brought forward to testify against Jesus. Finally, the high priest asks Jesus whether he is the Messiah, to which Jesus answers in the affirmative, citing Dan 7:13 and Ps 110:1 of himself. Claiming this to be blasphemy, the high priest and the others condemn Jesus to death.

10. 14:66-72

Peter denies Jesus three times before the rooster crows twice.

11. 15:1-5

In the morning, Jesus is sent to Pilate, who asks him whether Jesus is the king of the Jews, but Jesus refuses to answer.

12. 15:6-15

At the request of a mob, Pilate releases Barabbas; the mob, however, shouts for Jesus' crucifixion.

13. 15:16-41

Roman soldiers mock Jesus by dressing him in a purple robe and a crown of thorns, hailing him derisively as the king of the Jews. Jesus is crucified, and the titulus reads "King of the Jews. " Some hours later Jesus dies, and the curtain in the Temple is torn in two.

14. 15:42-47

In the evening on the day of preparation, Friday, Joseph of Arimathea, with the permission of Pilate, buries Jesus in his own tomb.

15. 16:1-8

When the Sabbath is completed, on the morning of the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Salome go to Jesus' tomb to anoint Jesus' body. Wondering who would roll the stone away for them, they discover that the stone is already rolled away and the tomb is empty. Entering the tom, they saw a young man who tells them that Jesus has been raised. The women leave in terror.

(Some manuscripts have a longer ending consisting of Jesus' appearances to Mary Magdalene [16:9-11] and to two disciples [16:12-13], the risen Jesus' commissioning of his disciples, as well as Jesus' ascension.)

1.2. Other Proposed Structures of the Gospel of Mark

There are many other proposals on how to structure the Gospel of Mark, different from the one presented above. Two examples will suffice:

1.2.1. W. Lane, The Gospel According to Mark [NICNT; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974] 29-32:

A. 1:1-13 Prologue to the Gospel

B. 1:14-3:6 The Initial Phase of the Galilean Ministry

C. 3:7-6:13 Later Phases of the Ministry in Galilee

D. 6:14-8:30 Withdrawal Beyond Galilee

E. 8:31-10:52 The Journey to Jerusalem

F. 11:1-13:37 Ministry in Jerusalem

G. 14:1-15:47 The Passion Narrative

H. 16:1-8 The Resurrection of Jesus

    Lane's proposal is not much different from the one outlined above. His division of the Gaililean ministry into an initial and later phases, however, seems arbitrary.

1.2.2. R. Guelich, "Gospel of Mark," in Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, eds. J. Green, S. McKnight and I. Marshall (Downer's Grove: InterVarsity, 1992) 512-25:

A. 1:1-15 Prologue

B. 1:16-8:26 Part One: "Jesus' Ministry in Public as the `Messiah, the Son of God'"

This section is divisible into three sub-sections, each with a similar literary structure: "Each begins with a story about the disciples (1:16-20; 3:13-19; 6:7-13) and each closes with an ominous story of rejection or unbelief (3:1-6; 6:1-6; and 8:10-21) followed by a summary (3:7-12; 6:6) or a story with the function of a summary (8:22-26) that is related to the theme of the respective section" (516).

1. 1.16-3:12: This section could be called "new wine in old wineskins."

2. 3:13-6:6: This section could be called "mystery of the Kingdom of God."

3. 6:7-8:26

C. 8:27-16:8 Part Two: "The Death of the Messiah, Son of God"

This section also falls into three sections:

1. 8:27-10:52

2. 11:1-13:37

3. 14:1-16:8

    Guelich's analysis of the outline seems too elaborate, not being fully supported by the text itself. Mark's structure seems much less organized than Guelich supposes.

2. Observations concerning the Composition of the Gospel of Mark

2.1. The Non-Chronological Nature of the Markan Narrative

2.1.1. The Episodic or Paratactic Nature of Mark

Within the larger framework of a Galilean and Judean period of Jesus' ministry, the Gospel of Mark exhibits no clearly defined structure. Rather one finds merely loosely connected single units of traditions and collections of traditions with some redactional connections supplied by the author. (This is what "the presbyter, as quoted by Papias, seems to mean [see below].)

    This lack of structure is most obvious in Mark 1:14 to 11:1, the point in the gospel when Jesus arrives in Jerusalem. (After this point, Jesus last two weeks or so of life are described, so that the material is partially chronological in presentation.) These chapters consist of isolated narratives or chronologically connected complexes of narratives together with collections of parables and sayings. Mark usually links his material together with the connective "and" (kai). Even within the complexes of narrative the traditions are simply strung together, again usually using the connective "and" (kai). Thus, as K. L. Schmidt pointed out in 1919, "As a whole there is no life of Jesus in the sense of an evolving biography, no chronological sketch of the story of Jesus, but only single stories, pericopae, which are put into a framework" (Der Rahmen der Geschichte Jesu, 317). Consequently, one could describe Mark's gospel as episodic in its organization arrangement, or as Kelber expresses it, having an "agglomerate nature" (The Oral and Written Gospel, 64).

    This is not to say that the organization of the isolated material until 11:1 is chronologically arbitrary, but that a chronological arrangement of the material was not the primary concern of the author. Probably, the order of the appearance of many of the isolated traditions and complexes of traditions is chronologically correct. It makes sense, for example, that Jesus begins to speak about the necessity of his death for the first time only towards the end of his Galilean ministry (8:28), when opposition to him has solidified. Likewise, the four traditions in Mark 10:17-52 appropriately are set during Jesus' journey to Jerusalem. Also, some sense of chronological progression may be provided in Mark by means of the author's uses of the adverb "again" (palin) (see Mark 2:1, 13; 3:1; 5:21; 8:13). (Whether this indicates real chronology or is for the sake of reminding the hearers/readers that previously Jesus had been to a particular place is open to question.) But clearly not every tradition is chronologically placed. The principle of the organization of the series of conflict stories in 2:1-3:6, for example, is thematic: Mark placed together a collection of similar traditions.

    The following is a list of the connective clauses between individual pericopes (units of tradition) in Mark; typically these function as transitions between one pericopa and another, as well as providing introductions to them. That Mark was only secondarily concerned with chronological considerations is evident by the fact that these connective clauses taken together do not provide anything resembling a chronologically complete series of events. Rather, the reader receives only the vaguest sense of how individual events in Jesus' life are chronologically connected.

2.1.2. Connective Clauses in Mark

(* = indicates a smaller, chronologically-connected complex of narratives)

1. 1:14-15 "After the imprisonment of John Jesus went to Galilee preaching the good news of God..." (This is a general statement providing a summary of the content of Jesus' preaching.)
2. 1:16-20 "And as Jesus walked beside the sea of Galilee..." (Jesus calls four disciples.)
*3. 1:21-39 This complex of traditions relate events in Jesus' ministry that occurred on a Sabbath and the evening following that Sabbath. It also describes in general terms what Jesus and his disciples did after this. 

a. 1:21-28 "And he [Jesus] went into Capernaum, and when the Sabbath came, Jesus went into a synagogue." (Jesus exorcizes a man.)

b. 1:29-31 "And immediately leaving the synagogue, they went with James and John into Simon's house..." (Jesus heals Simon's mother-in-law.)

c. 1:32-34 "And when evening came, when the sun set..." (Jesus heals many sick from Capernaum.)

d. 1:35-38 "And very early the morning while it was still dark..." (Jesus goes out to pray, and when found by his disciples, tells them that they must go to other towns to preach.)

e. 1:39 "And he went preaching..." (Jesus is said to have traveled throughout Galilee preaching in synagogues and exorcising.)

4. 1:40-45 "And a man with leprosy came to him..." (Jesus heals a man with leprosy.)
5. 2:1-12 "And again he went again to Capernaum a few days later..." (Jesus heals a paralytic, and is criticized for claiming to being authorized to forgive sins.)
*6. 2:13-17 This complex relates Jesus' calling of Levi and a meal that Jesus had at Levi's house with tax-collectors and sinners. Presumably the meal followed immediately after the calling.

a. 2:13 "And he went out again to the sea."

b. 2:15 "And it happens when he is reclining at his house..."

7. 2:18-22 "And John's disciples and the Pharisees fasted..." (Jesus defends his disciples against the charge that they do not fast.)
8. 2:23-28 "And one sabbath when Jesus was going through grain fields..." (Jesus defends his disciples against the charge that they violated the sabbath by picking grain.)
9. 3:1-6 "And he went again into the synagogue..." (Jesus defends himself against the charge that he violated the sabbath by healing on it.)
10. 3:7-12 "And Jesus and his disciples withdrew to the sea..." (This is a general description of how Jesus healed many at the shore.)
11. 3:13-19 "And he went into the hills..." (Jesus calls his twelve disciples.)
12. 3:20-21 "And he went into a house..." (Jesus' family tries to take him because they think that he is out of his mind.)
13. 3:22-30 "And when the scribes had come from Jerusalem, they said..." (Jesus defends himself against the charge that he casts out demons by the power of Beelzebub.)
14. 3:31-35 "And his mother and brothers came, and, standing outside, they sent someone to call to him..." (Jesus says that whoever does the will of God is his brother, sister and mother.)
*15. 4:1-6:13 This complex of traditions contains a collection of parables (4:1-34)along with Jesus' interpretation of the parable of the sower to his disciples. After teaching, Jesus goes across the sea and then to his hometown.

a. 4:1-20 "And again he began to teach by the sea..." (Jesus taught the crowds using the parable of the sower; afterwards the disciples ask for an explanation of the parable, which Jesus provides.)

b. 4:21-32 "And he said to them..." (This sections contains more parables and teaching.)

c. 4:33-34 "And with many similar parables did Jesus teach..." (This is a summary statement concerning how Jesus only used parables to teach the crowds.)

d. 4:35-41 "And that day when evening came, he said to his disciples..." (Jesus travels by boat with his disciples across the sea, at which time he calms the sea.)

e. 5:1-20 "And he went to the other side of the sea, to the region of the Gerasenes..." (Jesus exorcises the demoniac who dwelled among the tombs.)

f. 5:21-43 "And Jesus again crossed by boat to the other side" (Jesus heals the woman with the bleeding problem and raises Jairus' daughter from the dead.)

g. 6:1-6a "And Jesus left there and went to his hometown..." (Jesus is rejected in Nazareth.)

16. 6:6b-13 "And Jesus went around teaching from town to town..." (Jesus sends out his twelve disciples in pairs to preach, heal and exorcise.)
17. 6:14-29 "And king Herod heard..." (John the Baptist's death is recounted.)
*18. 6:30-56 This complex of traditions relates how Jesus fed the 5,000, and then traveled to Genessaret by boat, arriving the next day. 

a. 6:30-44 "And the apostles gathered around Jesus....So they went away by themselves in a boat to a solitary place..." (Jesus feeds the 5,000.)

b. 6:45-56 "And immediately Jesus made his disciples embark for Bethsaida....After leaving them he went into the hills to pray....When evening came the boat was in the middle of the sea....About the fourth watch of the night he went out to them....When they had crossed over they landed at Genessaret..." (Jesus walks on water meeting his disciples in the middle of the sea; they land at Genessaret where Jesus travels around healing.)

*19. 7:1-37 This complex of traditions relates Jesus' dispute with the Pharisees over ritual impurity, his disciples request for explanation of his "parable" and Jesus' ministry outside of Galilee.

a. 7:1-15 "And the Pharisees and some scribes who had come from Jerusalem came to him..." (Jesus criticizes the Pharisaic oral law.)

b. 7:17-23 "And when he went into a house away from the crowds..." (Jesus explains his "parable" at his disciples' request.)

c. 7:24-30 "And Jesus left from there and went into the region of Tyre..." (Jesus exorcises the daughter of the Syro-Phoenician woman.)

d. 7:31-37 "And again Jesus left the regions of Tyre and went through Sidon down to the sea and into the regions of Decapolis..." (Jesus heals a deaf man.)

*20. 8:1-26 This complex of traditions describes Jesus' feeding of the 4,000, a controversy with the Pharisees, after which Jesus and his disciples travel to Bethsaida.

a. 8:1-10 "In those days again there was a great crowd....They have already been with me three days" (Jesus feeds the 4,000.)

b. 8:11-13 "And the Pharisees came and began to question him..." (Jesus rejects the Pharisee's demand for a sign.)

c. 8:14-21 "And the disciples forgot to bring bread..." (Jesus and his disciples travel by boat, and the disciples forget to bring enough bread.)

d. 8:22-26 "And they came to Bethsaida..." (Jesus heals a blind man.)

*21. 8:27-9:32 This complex of traditions consists of Peter's confession of Jesus as the Christ, followed by Jesus' foretelling of his death and his teaching about discipleship. After six days Jesus goes to the mount of transfiguration; upon descending Jesus exorcises a boy.

a. 8:27-30 "And Jesus and his disciples went out to the villages of Caesarea Philippi..." (Peter confesses that Jesus is the Christ.)

b. 8:31-33 "And he began to teach them...." (Jesus explains that he must be delivered over, die and be raised again)

c. 8:34-9:1 "And calling the crowds along with the disciples, he said..." (Jesus teaches about discipleship.)

d. 9:2-13 "After six days Jesus took Peter, James and John..." (Jesus is transfigured.)

e. 9:14-29 "And when they came to the other disciples..." (Jesus exorcises a boy.)

f. 9:30-32 "And leaving from there they went through Galilee..." (Jesus teaches his disciples about the necessity of his death.)

22. 9:33-37 "And they went to Capernaum..." (Jesus teaches his disciples about service."
23. 9:38-41 "John said to him..." (John complains that others are exorcising in Jesus' name.)
24. 9:42-50 "And whoever..." (This sections contains several sayings of Jesus joined by means of word connectives.)
25. 10:1-12 "And leaving from there he went to the regions of Judea..." (Jesus teaches about divorce.)
26. 10:13-16 "And they brought to him little children..." (Jesus blesses children.)
27. 10:17-31 "As Jesus was starting on his way..." (Jesus teaches the rich young man about the requirements for obtaining eternal life.)
28. 10:32-34 "They were on their way to Jerusalem..." (Jesus again teaches about the necessity of his death.)
29. 10:35-45 "And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, came to him..." (James and John ask to be seated at Jesus' right and left when he comes into his glory.)
30. 10:46-52 "And he went to Jericho. And leaving from Jericho..." (Jesus heals the blind Bartimaeus.)

2.2. C. H. Dodd's Hypothesis of an Original Gospel Outline

There occur in Mark what K. Schmidt calls "summary statements" (Sammelberichte), which are generalizing statements functioning as introductions or conclusions to narratives or groups of narratives or as independent descriptions of aspects of Jesus' ministry (see 1:14-15; 1:21, 28, 39, 45; 2:1-2, 13; 3:6, 7-12; 4:1-2; 6:1, 6b, 7, 12-13, 30, 53, 56; 7:1-2, 24, 31; 8:1, 10, 22a, 27; 9:2, 30, 33; 10:1, 32, 52b; 15:1). Schmidt and the form critics who follow him hold that these are Markan compositions inserted to join together individual pericopes.

    Although he agrees in general with Schmidt's position, C. H. Dodd argues that Mark actually inherited from the tradition, not only individual pericopes, but "an outline of the whole ministry, designed perhaps, as an introduction to the Passion-story, but serving also as a background of reference for separate stories" ("The Framework of the Gospel Narative," ExpT 43 (1932) 396-400). (Other examples of such an outline are allegedly to be found in Acts 10:37-41; 13:23-31.) Fragments of this original outline have been incorporated by Mark into his gospel, being in fact some of the summary statements that Schmidt claimed were composed by the author of the gospel. Thus, according to Dodd, this outline can be recovered by stringing together some of these summary statements:

1:14-15 Summary of the Galilean Ministry

1:21-22 Capernaum: Teaching with Authority

1:39 Tour of Galilean synagogues

2.13 By the Sea

3:7b-19 Concourse of People; Retirement to Hill Country; Appointment of the Twelve

4:33-34 Parabolic Teaching

6:7, 12-13 Mission of the Twelve

6:30 Return of the Twelve

    It was Mark's redactional practice to fit the isolated pericopes and larger complexes of pericopes available to him from the tradition into this outline. But, according to Dodd, Mark had limited success, for two reasons: "(a) the outline was far too meager to provide a setting for all the detailed narratives at his disposal, while on the other hand it referred to phases of the Ministry not illustrated by the detailed narratives; (b) the materials were already partially grouped in ways which cut across a truly chronological order." According to Dodd, Mark was forced into "a compromise between a chronological and a topical order."

    Dodd's hypothesis is improbable. First, it is not obvious that these Markan "summary statements" should have originally been elements of a gospel outline. Some of these could have existed as complete and independent pericopes (Why could there not have been generalizing units of tradition?) (1:14-15, 39; 3:7-12; 6:56), while others seem to be introductions integral to the pericope in which they are found (1:21; 2:1-2, 13; 4:1-2; 6:1, 6b, 7, 30, 53; 7:1-2, 24, 31; 8:1, 22a, 27; 9:2, 30, 33; 10:1, 32, 52b; 15:1) or conclusions (1:28; 1:45; 3:6; 6:12-13; 8:10). Second, Dodd's reconstruction of this traditional outline at places does not seem to fit what one would expect to find in such an outline. For example, in 3:7b-12 reference is made to Jesus' being forced to teach from a boat because of the pressing crowd and to Jesus' teaching on a sabbath (or "on sabbath days") in Capernaum. Such events seem too specific to belong to an outline of Jesus' ministry. Third, it seems unlikely that an outline would make no reference to Jesus' visits to Judea, descriptions of which John's gospel provides, if the same outline mentions Jesus' Galilean ministry (See D. Nineham, "The Order of Events in St. Mark's Gospel: An Examination of Dr. Dodd's Hypothesis," in Studies in the Gospels, ed. D. Nineham [Oxford: Blackwell, 1955) 223-39; E. Guettgemann, Candid Question Concerning Gospel From Criticism (PTMS 26; Pittsburgh: Pickwick, 1979) 311-18 for other criticisms.)

2.3. The Connecting of Sayings

In addition to the collections of pericopes that are connected chronologically (see above), it is probable that Mark or a pre-Markan redactor (perhaps Peter) joined together individual and originally isolated sayings of Jesus into larger units thematically or by means of link words.

2.3.1. Mark 2:1-3:6

At the beginning of the Gospel of Mark are found a collection of five conflict stories, in which Jesus comes into conflict with and answers the accusation of his opponents. These five pericopes are loosely connected with one another chronologically (see above). Probably, Mark or a pre-Mark redactor collected these conflict stories together based on their sharing the theme of conflict with opponents.

A. Mark 2:1-12 (Jesusí healing of a paralyzed man)

B. Mark 2:13-17 (Jesusí calling of Levi)

C. Mark 2:18-22 (The question about fasting)

D. Mark 2:12-28 (Plucking grain on the Sabbath)

E. Mark 3:1-6 (Healing of man with withered hand)

2.3.2. Mark 4:21-32

After the parable of the sower and its explanation, there are found four parables, sayings in which Jesus uses metaphorical language. Each is introduced by "And he said [to them]." It is possible that Mark or a pre-Markan redactor was responsible for grouping this material together, on the basis that thematically these traditions are all instances of parabolic discourse.

A. 4:21-23 Jesus' saying about the lamp's not coming in order to be hidden under a bushel, and how everything hidden will be revealed.

B. 4:24-25 Jesus' saying about how one receives in accordance with the measure with which one measures out and how the one who has will receive while the one who does not have will lose the litle he has.

C. 4:26-29 Jesus' parable of the seed growing by itself

D. 4:30-32 Jesus' parable of the mustard seed

2.3.3. Mark 8:34-9:1

After Jesus explains to his disciples for the first time that he must die and be raised from the dead, Mark includes several of Jesus' sayings concerning discipleship. Thematically they belong together and serve to draw out the implications of following Jesus, whose destiny is to be executed.

A. 8:34 The need for self-denial and taking up one's cross

B. 8:35 Saving and losing one's soul

C. 8:36 Gaining the world and losing one's soul

D. 8:37 In exchange for one's soul

E. 8:38 Being ashamed

F. 9:1 The Kingdom of God in power

2.3.4. Mark or perhaps a pre-Markan redactor seems to have organized isolated sayings of Jesus together by means of link-words. The next two collections of sayings are examples of this.

A. Mark 9:42-50

1. 9:42 linked to 9:43-48 by word "cause to stumble" (skandalizo)

2. 9:48 linked to 9:49 by the word "fire" (pur)

3. 9:49 linked to 9:50a by the word "salt" (alas)

4. 9:50a linked to 9:50b by the word "salt"

B. Mark 11:22-25

1. 11:22 is linked to 11:23 by word "believe/belief" (pistis/pisteuo)

2. 11:23 is linked to 11:24 by word "believe"

3. 11:24 is linked to 11:25 by word "to pray" (proseuchomai)

    Contrary to the views of many commentators, the material in Mark 13:1-37 requires a different explanation of its origin, since its component parts are not short sayings. From all appearances, it seems to be a summary of an extended eschatological discourse of Jesus, just as Mark records it.

2.4. Oral Legacy of Markan Material

W. Kelber has demonstrated that Markan narrative bears the traces of an "oral legacy": Markan narrative style reflects the needs of oral presentation. This is consistent with the external tradition that traces the gospel's origin to the preaching of Peter; Mark recorded his oral narrative material as Peter told it, not fully adapting it to the medium of written discourse. (As indicated, this also accounts for the episodic nature of Mark, since each narrative or narrative complex was likely a self-contained unit or oral tradition.) The following "stylistic and rhetorical features contribute to the gospel's oral flavor":

2.4.1. The use of the third person plural rather than the passive is a mark of oral narrative (e.g. 8:22; 10:13).

2.4.2. The excessive use of the historical present, which tends to magnify dramatic intensity, is a feature of oral presentation.

2.4.3. Preference for the use of direct speech rather than indirect speech is part of Mark's oral legacy (e.g., 9:11; 11:17).

2.4.4. Mark is characterized by duplicate features, what F. Nierynck calls "duality" (Duality in Mark. Contributions to the Study of Markan Redaction). These duplicate features consist of redunancies and repetitions. Markan duality derives from the origins of Mark's material in oral tradition. Oral presentation requires such duality, for, as Kelber puts its, "Without recourse to texts, knowledge must be repeated many times over" (67).

3. The Conditions of the Production of the Gospel of Mark

3.1. Authorship

3.1.1. Internal Evidence

The Gospel of Mark is anonymous; there is no internal, direct evidence for its authorship. Only sometime during the second century was the title "According to Mark" or "The Gospel According to Mark" affixed to the work, in order to distinguish it from the other gospels, which in itself counts as external evidence that Mark wrote it.

    Nevertheless, there is some internal, indirect evidence for authorship. One can infer something about the author from certain literary features of the gospel. First, the gospel is non-literary, having a simple and popular style, having affinities with the spoken Greek as revealed by the papyri and inscriptions.

    Second, the gospel has a Semitic flavor to it. By this is meant that Semitic syntactical features influence the form of the Greek. For example, corresponding to Hebrew and Aramaic syntax, frequently verbs are found at the beginning of a sentence in the Gospel of Mark. Two other examples of a Semitic syntactical feature is the abundant presence of asyndeta, the placing of clauses together without the use of conjunctions, and parataxis, the joining of clauses with the conjunction kai (and) (imitative of the waw-consecutive in Hebrew and Aramaic). (There are many other alleged examples of Semitisms in the Gospel of Mark.) From these two data, one can infer that the author was probably an Aramaic speaker who learned to speak and write Greek outside of a formal educational setting (e.g., a gymnasion).

    Third, the Gospel of Mark has vividness of description that is consistent with its being an eyewitness account; details unnecessary to the flow of the narrative are included. Examples include Mark 2:4 (Breaking of the roof); Mark 4:37-38 (Jesusí sleeping on a cushion in the stern of the boat); 6:39 (The arrangement of the group that Jesus feeds into groups and the fact that the grass was gree); Mark 7:33 (Jesusí putting fingers in ears and touching of tongue); Mark 8:23-25 (The gradual process by which the blind manís eyes were restored); Mark 14:54 (Peterís sitting with the servants around the fire in the courtyard) (See D. Guthrie, New Testament Introduction, rev. ed., 61-62),

3.1.2. External Evidence

The earliest piece of external, direct evidence comes to us from Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, (c. 60-130) who quotes "the Presbyter" (elder) (Eusebius HE iii. 39. 15) (Eusebius quotes from what he identifies as the five treatises written by Papias, entitled, Interpretation of the Oracles of the Lord, which is no longer extant):

"And the Presbyter used to say this, Mark became Peter's interpreter and wrote accurately all that he remembered, not, indeed, in order, of the things said and done by the Lord. For he had not heard the Lord, nor had followed him, but later on, followed Peter, who used to give teaching as necessity demanded but not making, as it were, an arrangement of the Lord's oracles, so that Mark did nothing wrong in thus writing down single points as he remembered them. For to one thing he gave attention, to leave out nothing of what he had heard and to make no false statements in them."

The first sentence is probably the statement of the presbyter, whereas the remainder is Papias' elaboration of the meaning of the presbyter's statement. (For an extended analysis of the Papias note, see M. Hengel, Studies in the Gospel of Mark, 47-50)

    Three claims are made in this quotation from Papias:

A. Mark wrote the gospel identified in Eusebius' day (and ours) as the Gospel of Mark.

B. Mark obtained his information from Peter, not being an eyewitness himself.

C. The gospel written by Mark lacks "order," reflecting the piecemeal and occasional nature of Peter's use of the gospel tradition in his preaching.

    There are two questions raised by this quotation from Papias:

A. What exactly did Papias mean when he called Mark the "interpreter" (e`rmhneu,tej) of Peter? Although this term normally means interpreter, the context suggests more the meaning of "translator."

B. Why did the presbyter say that Mark wrote accurately what Peter remembered (o[sa evmnhmo,neusen, avkribw/j e;grayen) but not indeed in order (ouv me,ntoi ta,xei)? It seems criticism was leveled against the Gospel of Mark for lacking chronological accuracy. In response, the presbyter points out that chronological accuracy was never Mark's intention. Papias explains further that Mark's method of composition was to collect the traditions used by Peter as occasion demanded in his preaching and that there is nothing wrong with this.

    Another early identification of the Gospel of Mark with Peter is found in Justin's Dialogue with Trypho (150): "It is said that he [Jesus] changed the name of one of the apostles to Peter; and it is written in his memoirs that he changed the names of others, two brothers, the sons of Zebedee, to Boanerges, which means `sons of thunder'...." (106.3) If by "his memoirs" Justin means Peter's memoirs, then these memoirs must be the Gospel of Mark, since only in it are the sons of Zebedee called the sons of thunder (3:17).

    There are other, later second and third century sources that identify Mark as the author of the Gospel of Mark.

A. Irenaeus (130-200), for example, says that the Gospel of Mark was written "When Peter and Paul were preaching the gospel in Rome and founding the church there"; he adds, "After their departure, Mark, Peter's disciple, has himself delivered to us in writing the substance of Peter's preaching" (Ad. Haer. iii. 1, 1; HE 5. 8. 2-4) ).

B. Eusebius reports that Clement of Alexandria (150-215), in his Hypotyposeis, citing an ancient tradition of the elders, described how the Gospel of Mark came into being as follows, "When Peter had preached the gospel publicly in Rome...those who were present...besought Mark, since he had followed him (Peter) for a long time and remembered the things that had been spoken, to write out the things that had been said; and when he had done this he gave the gospel to those who asked him. When Peter learned of it later, he neither obstructed nor commended" (HE 6.14.6-7).

C. The fragment of the Anti-Marcionite prologue says, "Mark declared, who is called `stump-fingered,í because he had rather small fingers in comparison with the stature of the rest of his body. He was the interpreter of Peter. After the death of Peter himself he wrote down this same gospel in the regions of Italy."

    Some scholars claim that some or all of these second and third century identifications of Mark as the author of the Gospel of Mark are dependent on Papias, in which case they are not independent testimonies. But there does not seem to be sufficient evidence to conclude in favor of such dependency.

3.1.3. Conclusion

A. What internal, indirect evidence there is for the authorship of the Gospel of Mark agrees with the external, direct evidence. (John) Mark, being a resident of Jerusalem, would have been a Palestinian Jew, having Aramaic as his first language. The conclusion follows that (John) Mark wrote the gospel that bears his name (see M. Hengel, Studies in the Gospel of Mark, 1-30). In spite of the evidence, however, most New Testament scholars are reluctant to identify the author of the Gospel of Mark as (John) Mark and to trace its contents to the apostle Peter. Any other possibility is preferable to this, or so it seems. Thus, the testimony of the early church, no matter how early, is discounted as mere speculation. It should be noted, however, that if it was inventing authors, for apologetic reasons to undergird the authority of the gospels against detractors, the early church would surely have given the Gospel of Mark a direct apostolic origin.

3.1.4. Information about (John) Mark is available from the New Testament (Acts 12:12, 25; 15:37, 39; 2 Tim 4:11; Col 4:10; Philemon 24; 1 Pet 5:13) (John) Mark was probably a resident of Jerusalem, since his mother had a house in the city (Acts 12:12). He traveled with Paul and Barnabas from Jerusalem to Antioch (Acts 12:25), and then traveled with them on the first missionary journey (13:13). He left Paul and Barnabas in Pamphylia (13:13; 15:37). Later he traveled with Barnabas to Cyprus and other places (15:39). (John Mark was the cousin of Barnabas [Col 4:10].). Mark is with Paul in Rome during Paul's first imprisonment in Rome (Philemon 24). During his second imprisonment, Paul asks Timothy to bring Mark to Rome (2 Tim 4:11). He is with Peter in Rome when he writes 1 Peter (5:13). (There is a tradition cited by Eusebius that places Mark in Alexandria after the writing of his gospel [H.E. 2.16.1; 2.24.1]. Whether this is true is a question to consider.)

3.2. Intended Readership

3.2.1. Internal Evidence

There is no internal, direct evidence for the intended readership. There is, however, some internal, indirect evidence:

A. That Mark provides translations of Aramaic words (3:17; 5:41; 7:11; 7:34; 10:46; 15:22) implies that his intended readers do not speak Aramaic.

B. That Mark explains Jewish terms and customs (7:3-4; 14:12; 15:42) implies that his intended readers are not Jews.

C. The fact that there are Latinisms in a work written in Greek and full of Semitisms also constitutes internal, indirect evidence for intended readership. (Latinisms are Latin words that are transliterated into Greek.) Examples of Latinisms in the Gospel of Mark are as follows (see R. P. Martin, New Testament Foundations, vol. 1, 202-203; Kuemmel, Einleitung in das Neue Testament, 69-70):

1. 4:27: mo,dioj = Lat. modius (a measure)

2. 5:9, 15 legiw,n = Lat. legio (legion)

3. 6:27 spekoula,tor = Lat. speculator (guard)

4. 6:37 dhna,rion = Lat. denarius (a Roman coin)

5. 7:4 xestw/n = Lat. sextarius (container)

6. 12:14 kh/nsoj = Lat. census (tribute money)

7. 15:15 i`kano.n poiei/n = satis facere (to satisfy)

8. 15:15 fragellw,saj = Lat. fragellare (to whip)

9. 15:39, 44-45 kenturi,wn = Lat. centurio (centurion) (Both Matthew and Luke use evkatontra,chj, the equivalent term in Greek.)

    In addition, on two occasions Mark provides his readers with Latin translations of Greek words:

1. 12:42 le,pta duo,, which is said to be the equivlent of a kordra,nthj = Lat. quadrans (the smallest Roman coin)

2. 15:16 auvlh,j, which is said to be the praitw/rion = Lat. praetorium

    The presence of Latinisms and Latin translations of Greek words in the Gospel of Mark implies that the intended readers were Latin speakers, even though they could read or at least understand Greek. Latin speakers would have been found most readily in Italy, although not exclusively.

D. Markís reference to the woman in Tyre to whom he refers as "a Greek, racially a Syro-Phoenician" (Mark 7:24) implies a Roman readership, because such a designation would be most understood by Romans, who distinguished Carthaginians, i.e., Phoenicians from Carthage (Libufoinikej) and those from Syria (Hengel, Studies in the Gospel of Mark, 29).

E. Internal, indirect evidence for a Roman readership is the fact that in his passion narrative Mark unnecessarily (from a literary point of view) identifies Alexander and Rufus as the sons of Simon the Cyrene (15:21). The probable reason that Mark does this is that these men are known to his readers: Mark wants to ensure that they know that the Simon the Cyrene mentioned in the text is the father of these two men. A man named Rufus is mentioned in Rom 16:13, being a member of the Roman church. If the Rufus in Rom 16:13 is the same as that in Mark 15:21, then likely Mark's intended readers were Roman Christians.

3.2.2. External Evidence

The external, direct evidence from the second-century points to the conclusion that Gospel of Mark was written in Rome:

A. As already seen, Eusebius claims that Papias wrote that Mark composed his gospel for Peter's hearers in Rome (HE 2.15.2). This implies that Mark wrote his gospel in Rome.

B. As already seen, Clement of Alexandria implies that Mark wrote his gospel in Rome.

C. Irenaeus, as already quoted above, implies that the Gospel of Mark was written in Rome:

    External, indirect evidence is found in the fact that Peter and Mark are placed together in Rome in the early sixties (1 Pet 5:13). On the assumption that it can be proven that the Gospel of Mark was written about this time, the most likely place of its composition is Rome. If he wrote in Rome, Mark probably was writing for Roman Christians.

    Since the external, direct evidence implies that (John) Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark in Rome, it is most natural to suppose that the intended readers were Roman Christians. This conclusion is corroborated by the quotation from Clement's Hypotyposeis, quoted above: "When Peter had preached the gospel publicly in Rome...those who were present...besought Mark, since he had followed him (Peter) for a long time and remembered the things that had been spoken, to write out the things that had been said; and when he had done this he gave the gospel to those who asked him. When Peter learned of it later, he neither obstructed nor commended" (H.E. 6.14.6-7). Clement says that Mark is supposed to have written his gospel at the request of those in Rome who heard Peter's preaching, who are likely Roman Christians. (According to Eusebius, Papias is supposed to have related the same story H.E. 2.15.2).

3.2.3. Conclusion

The internal and external evidence converges towards the conclusion that (John) Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark for Roman Christians.

3.3. Provenance

There is no internal, direct evidence for provenance. The internal, indirect evidence has already been considered in dealing with the intended readership.

3.3.1. Internal Evidence

A. The existence of Latinisms and Latin translations of Greek words in the Gospel of Mark implies Latin readers; this in turn suggests that Rome or Italy as a probable place of composition.

B. The reference to the woman in Tyre called "a Greek, racially a Syro-Phoenician" implies that the Gospel of Mark was written for Romans (Mark 7:24-30); this suggests that the place of composition was Rome or Italy.

C. That Alexander and Rufus are identified as the sons of Simon the Cyrene suggests, as explained above, that the intended readers are Roman Christians; if true, this may imply that (John) Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark in Rome, where Alexander and Rufus reside.

3.3.2. External Evidence

A. The external, direct evidence from the second-century points to the conclusion that Gospel of Mark was written in Rome:

1. As already seen, Eusebius claims that Papias wrote that Mark composed his gospel for Peter's hearers in Rome (H.E. 2.15.2). This implies that Mark wrote his gospel in Rome.

2. As cited above, Clement of Alexandria implies that Mark wrote his gospel in Rome.

3. Irenaeus, as already quoted above, implies that the Gospel of Mark was written in Rome:

4. As cited earlier, the fragment of the Anti-Marcionite prologue placed the composition of the Gospel of Mark "in the regions of Italy."

B.  The fact, as already indicated, that Peter and (John) Mark are placed together in Rome in the early sixties (1 Pet 5:13) constitutes external, indirect evidence that (John) Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark in Rome.

3.3.3. Conclusion

The internal and external evidence points to a provenance of Rome or Italy.

3.4. Date

The date of the gospel is difficult to determine with precision. There is no internal, direct evidence nor any internal, indirect evidence, although traditionally scholars have tried to date it after the destruction of Jerusalem based on Mark 13:  it is assumed that the reference to "the abomination that causes desolation" in Mark 13:14 is an allusion to Titus's destruction of the Jerusalem Temple.  But this is not so obvious as is often thought.

3.4.1. External Evidence

The external, direct evidence is as follows:

A. Irenaeus, as quoted above, says that it was after Peter's death that Mark produced his gospel (Adv. Haer. 3. 1. 2 in H.E. 5.8.2-4) "And after the death of these (Peter and Paul) Mark the disciple and interpreter (hermeneutes) of Peter, also handed down to us in writing the things preached by Peter"

B. Clement of Alexandria, as quoted above, writes in his Hypotyposeis: "When Peter had preached the gospel publicly in Rome...those who were present...besought Mark, since he had followed him (Peter) for a long time and remembered the things that had been spoken, to write out the things that had been said; and when he had done this he gave the gospel to those who asked him. When Peter learned of it later, he neither obstructed nor commended" (H.E. 6.14.6-7). The implication is that Peter was still alive at the time of the composition of the gospel.

C. The fragment of the Anti-Marcionite prologue, as already cited, says: "...Mark declared, who is called "stump-fingered," because he had rather small fingers in comparison with the stature of the rest of his body. He was the interpreter of Peter. After the death of Peter himself he wrote down this same gospel in the regions of Italy."

3.4.2. Conclusion

The external, direct evidence is contradictory. There is disagreement about whether Mark wrote his gospel before or after Peter's death, which took place during Nero's persecution of the church c. 65. To be on the safe side a date ranging from 63-68 should be attributed the Gospel of Mark.

3.5. Purpose

3.5.1 Internal Evidence

Internal, direct evidence for Mark's purpose in writing is found in Mark 1:1: "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ." It is possible to take this verse as a title for the entire work, so that Mark's intention is to explain to his Christian hearers/readers the beginning or the basis (arche) of the good news that they believed (see Taylor, The Gospel According to St. Mark, 152). In other words, Mark wants to give some information about Jesus, the focus of the kerygma of the early church. From the contents of the gospel itself, he stresses Jesus' passion and resurrection, but also includes many accounts of Jesus' healings, exorcisms, controversies and some teaching. He does not intend, however, to provide a completely chronological account, as already indicated.

3.5.2. External Evidence

The external, direct evidence confirms the conclusion drawn from the internal evidence. The several statements concerning the conditions of the composition of the Gospel of Mark cited above state directly or imply that Mark wrote at the behest of the Roman church. It seems that with Peter's death or at least his approaching demise, the Roman church felt a need to have the traditions that Peter had been using for evangelistic and didactic purposes set down in a permanent form. Consequently, Mark, being most qualified to do so (since he was Peterís "interpreter"), wrote what became the Gospel of Mark. That Mark was a compiler of the individual traditions that Peter used, not always arranging in chronological order (see Papiasí statement), is borne out, as we saw, by an investigation into the arrangement of the material in the Gospel of Mark. Whether Mark had more specific purposes than this in view has been debated for many years among the redaction critics.