1. Selective Bibliography

D. C. Allison, The End of the Ages Has Come (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985); id., Jesus of Nazareth: Millenarian Prophet (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998); A. Ambrozic, The Hidden Kingdom, 1972; E. Arens, The ELTHON-Sayings in the Synoptic Gospels. A Historical-Critical Investigation, 1976; H. F. Bayer, Jesus' Predictions of Vindication and Resurrection (Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck, 1986);G.R. Beasley-Murray, Jesus and the Kingdom of God, 1986; M. Black, "The Parables as Allegories," BJRL 42 (1960) 273-87; J. Bonsirven, Le règne du Dieu, 1957; M. Borg, Conflict, Holiness and Politics in the Teachings of Jesus,1984;M. Eugene Boring, Sayings of the Risen Jesus. Christian Prophecy in the Synoptic Tradition, 1982; M.I. Boucher, The Mysterious Parable: A Literary Study, 1977; id., The Parables, 1983; S.M. Bryan, Jesus and Israel’s Traditions of Judgment and Restoration, 2002; O. Camponovo, Königtum, Königsherrschaft und Reich Gottes in den frühjüdischen Schriften, 1988; Carlston, The Parables of the Triple Tradition, 1975; B. Chilton, God in Strength. Jesus’ Announcement of the Kingdom of God, 1987; J. Collins, “The Kingdom of God in the in Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha,” in The Kingdom of God in 20th-Century Interpretation (ed. Wendell Willis, 1987) 81-95; J. Coppens, La royauté, le règne, le royaume de Dieu : cadre de la relève apocalyptique, 1979; J.D. Crossan, The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant, 1991; G. Dalman, The Words of Jesus (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1902); J. Dupont, Les Béatitudes, vol.3, Les Evangélistes, (rev. ed.; Paris: Gabalda, 1973); G. Eichholz, Gleichnisse der Evangelien: Form, Uberlieferung, Auslegung, 1979; P. Fiedler, Jesus und die Sünder, 1976; G.W. Forbes, The God of Old: The Role of the Lukan Parables in the Purpose of Luke's Gospel, 2000; R.H. Fuller, The Mission and Achievement of Jesus, 1954; Gerhardsson, “The Parable of the Sower,” NTS 14 (1968) 165-93; J. Gnilka, Die Verstockung Israels. Isaias 6,9-10 in der Theologie der Synoptiker, 1961; id., Jesus of Nazareth: Message and History, 1997; C. Grappe, Le Royaume de Dieu. Avant, avec et après Jésus, 2001); E. Gräßer, Die Naherwartung Jesu, 1973; J. Gray, The Biblical Doctrine of the Reign of God, 1979; W. Grimm, Weil Ich dich Liebe. Die Verkündigung und Deuterjesaja, 1976; R.A. Guelich, The Sermon on the Mount: A Foundation for Understanding, 1982; F. Hauck, "parabole" TDNT V 74748; A. Hultgren, The Parables of Jesus: A Commentary, 2000; J. Jeremias, New Testament Theology. The Proclamation of Jesus, 1971; id., The Parables of Jesus, 1972; I.H. Jones, The Matthean Parables: A Literary and Historical Commentary, 1995; H. J. Klauck, Allegorie und Allegorese in synoptischen Gleichnistexten, 1978; A. Kretzer, Die Herrschaft der Himmel und die Söhne des Reiches, 1971; W.R. Kümmel, Promise and Fulfilment: Eschatological Message of Jesus, 1957; G.E. Ladd, The Presence of the Future, 1974; J. Liebenberg, The Language of the Kingdom and Jesus, 2001; T.W. Manson, The Teaching of Jesus, 1931; id. The Sayings of Jesus, 1949; J. Marcus, The Mystery of the Kingdom of God , 1986; S. McKnight, New Vision for Israel: The Teachings of Jesus in National Context, 1999; J.P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, vol. 2, Mentor, Message and Miracles, 1994; H. Merklein, Die Gottesherrschaft als Handlungsprinzip. Untersuchung zur Ethik Jesu, 1981; B.F. Meyer, The Aims of Jesus, 1979; Percy, Die Botschaft Jesu, 1953; P. Perkins, Jesus as Teacher, 1990; N. Perrin, The Kingdom of God in the Teaching of Jesus, 1963; id., Rediscovering the Teaching of Jesus, 1967; M. Reiser, Jesus and Judgment. Eschatological Proclamation in Its Jewish Context, 1997; R. Reisner, Jesus als Lehrer, 2d. ed., 1984; E.P. Sanders, Jesus and Judaism,1985; M. Sato, Q und Prophetie. Studien zur Gattungs- und Traditionsgeschichte der Quelle Q, 1988; J. Schlosser, Le règne de Dieu dans les dits de Jésus, 2 vols.; Schnackenburg, God’s Rule and Kingdom, 1963; H. Schürmann, Gottes Reich-Jesu Geschick: Jesu ureigener Tod im Licht seiner Basileia-Verkündigung, 1983 S. Schulz, Q: Die Spruchquelle der Evangelisten, 1972; E. Schweizer, Erniedrigung und Erhöhung bei Jesus und seinen Nachfolgern, 1962; B.D. Smith, Jesus' Twofold Teaching about the Kingdom of God, 2009; K.R. Snodgrass, Stories with Intent. A Comprehensive Guide to the Parables of Jesus, 2008; O.H. Steck, Israel und das gewaltsame Geschick der Propheten, 1967; K.H. Tan, The Zion Traditions and the Aims of Jesus, 1997; W. Trilling, Wolfgang, Das wahre Israel, 1964; N.T. Wright, Jesus and the Victory of God, 1996; W. Zager, Gottesherrschaft und Endgericht in der Verkündigung Jesu, 1996.

2.  Introduction

The phrase "the Kingdom of God" is synonymous with "the Kingdom of Heaven," which occurs frequently in Matthew: "Heaven" or "heavens" is a periphrasis for God. (Matthew does use the phrase "Kingdom of God" four times in 12:28; 19:24; 21:31, 43). The Kingdom of God (Greek: basileia tou theou; Aramaic: malkûta' dî 'elaha) is a central and unifying concept in the teaching material in the synoptic gospels; it is Jesus' preferred term to describe Israel's eschatological salvation, although not the exclusive term that he uses. It is important to differentiate two contexts for Jesus' teaching about the Kingdom of God: the context of non-rejection and the context of rejection. Jesus proclaims the Kingdom of God and delineated its nature for his hearers. But the nature of the Kingdom of God as Jesus delineates it is conditional upon its acceptance and the acceptance of  its messenger by the people and the religious / political leadership. In other words, Jesus' teaching about the Kingdom of God is hypothetical. (This is typical of God's dealings with Israel: God's benefits to the nation are conditional upon its obedience.) This one could call the non-rejection context of Jesus' teaching about the Kingdom of God. In a non-rejection context, Jesus proclaims the Kingdom of God, and instructs his disciples to do the same. He believes that the Kingdom of God, Israel’s long-awaited eschatological salvation, is a present reality, being the climax of all salvation history. Jesus sees the Kingdom as a historical process that is already underway and inseparably connected to him. A benefit of the Kingdom includes forgiveness on the condition of repentance. Healing and freedom from evil spirits are two other benefits. He offers the Kingdom of God to Jews alone. Although he views it as a present reality, Jesus also teaches that the Kingdom of God will grow until it reaches its culmination, for which the disciple are to pray. The culmination of the Kingdom will include Israel’s restoration to the land, final judgment and eschatological reversal. At this point, a Jew will enter again into the Kingdom on the conditions of having responded positively to Jesus and having obeyed the Law. Before this time there will be no separation of righteous and unrighteous Jews. According to Jesus, the time until the culmination of the Kingdom is relatively short.

Part One: Jesus as Teacher and Pedagogical Method

Part Two: The Kingdom of God as Present

Part Three: The Kingdom of God as Future